Wall St Journal gives broadband view of proposed federal legislation for broadband funding

The Wall Street Journal reports

The $1 trillion infrastructure bill moving through the Senate this week stands to be a windfall for cable and fiber-optic internet companies, with $65 billion allocated to improve internet access for poor and isolated communities. The plan, which must still be reconciled with a House version, would help home internet providers such as AT&T Inc. and Charter Communications Inc. by providing $40 billion in grants that states can dole out to operators that expand their networks to households that lack high-speed service.

There are things the providers are expected to like and not like…

The latest version of the bill hammered out Sunday came as a relief to some in the telecom industry who opposed measures being considered in previous iterations, including mandated higher internet speed requirements and incentives for companies looking to compete with existing cable and telephone operators. There are still some provisions that broadband providers will likely chafe at, including proposed rules that force them to plainly disclose the service levels and prices they offer, said Blair Levin, a market analyst at New Street Research.

Here are some of the issues with continuing the lower speed target…

Broadband providers dodged another bullet when the Senate bill adopted a threshold of 100 megabits per second for broadband downloads with 20 Mbps uploads for new grants. Consumer advocates had pushed the government to require higher speeds as a precondition for funding, but many cable networks aren’t designed to fit faster uploads. The new broadband standard means companies that offer service over coaxial cables as well as fiber-optic lines can benefit from federal funding. The standard also allows newer companies like Space Exploration Technologies Corp., better known as SpaceX, to compete for grants for their internet-beaming satellite constellations. Consumer advocates have meanwhile complained that the legislation avoided mandating more aggressive measures to expand internet access. The grants stop short of supporting government-owned networks that could compete with cable companies, for instance. “I don’t see anything in here that will change the structure of the market to create real competition,” said Christopher Mitchell, director of the community broadband networks program at the Institute for Local Self-Reliance.

OPPORTUNITY: NTIA opens Applications for $268 Million Connecting Minority Communities Pilot Program

From BroadbandUSA…

The Department of Commerce’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) today released a Notice of Funding Opportunity for the Connecting Minority Communities Pilot Program, which will direct $268 million for expanding broadband access and connectivity to eligible Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs), Tribal Colleges or Universities (TCUs), minority-serving institutions (MSIs), and consortia led by an HBCU, TCU, or MSI that also include a minority business enterprise or tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization.

“Communities of color have faced systemic barriers to affordable broadband access since the beginning of the digital age,” said U.S. Secretary of Commerce Gina M. Raimondo. “The investments we make as part of the Connecting Minority Communities Pilot Program will help communities that are struggling with access, adoption and connectivity, and will inform our path forward as we seek to finally close the digital divide across the country.”

The Connecting Minority Communities Pilot Program was established by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021. Grants will be distributed to help HBCUs, TCUs and MSIs purchase broadband service or equipment, hire IT personnel, operate a minority business enterprise or a tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization, and facilitate educational instruction, including remote instruction.

“NTIA knows how crucial colleges, universities and other community institutions can be when it comes to reaching vulnerable citizens and making a lasting impact,” said Acting NTIA Administrator Evelyn Remaley. “We look forward to working with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tribal Colleges or Universities, and minority-serving institutions to advance our shared goal of a fully connected nation.”

The Notice of Funding Opportunity published today on grants.gov outlines the requirements for grant applications and other information about the program. Completed applications must be received by grants.gov no later than 11:59 p.m. EST on Dec. 1, 2021. In June, NTIA published the Final Rule for the program, which included programmatic scope, general guidelines, and described the agency’s method to determine applicant eligibility and identify which eligible recipients have the greatest unmet financial needs.

NTIA is holding a series of webinars to further inform the public. The next Connecting Minority Communities webinars will be held on August 18 and 19.

eNews: MN Monthly Recap Sep 2021: RDOF, Fall Conference and Opportunities

Save the Date (Oct 12-14)! Building on Broadband: Inspiring Progress
The Blandin Foundation is pleased to announce the dates for the virtual fall broadband conference of Oct 12-14. There will be a series regional events leading up to the statewide conference. We are looking for presenters (like you) who have an inspirational story of broadband use. Please submit an idea!

FCC doles out some RDOF funding
The FCC announced several (but not all) Federal RDOF broadband awards. Two winning bidders in MN were given the green light (Consolidates and Farmers) and one was asked and then did withdraw one project (Aspire). Nothing was said about LTD Broadband in Minnesota; although LTD was given red and yellow lights in other states. CNS has created an interactive map that tracks the new awards. The RDOF announcement was a hot topic on the July Digital Use Lunch Bunch topic as well in various publications.

MN Broadband Task Force July 2021
The MN Broadband Task Force heard from the MN Office of Broadband Development; because new funding for grants will be coming from federal sources, the funds will likely not be released in 2021. They also heard from the State Connected & Automated Vehicles Office and their need for fiber and from CNS about their interactive broadband maps.

New Blandin Cohort to Work on Broadband

Arrowhead Intelligent Region (AIR) initiative brings together northeastern Minnesota economic and community developers to identify and fund projects across the seven-county Arrowhead region that will:

  • improve broadband infrastructure
  • build a knowledge workforce
  • incent innovation
  • ensure digital equality
  • enable community engagement
  • ensure environmental and social sustainability

Policy Issues (in reverse chronological order)


Vendor News

Research & Tools

Local Broadband News

Dakota County
Dakota County Broadband Report 2020

702 Communications Announces new Internet Exchange, FMIX

Fridley storm shelter also used as learning hub and literacy center

Hennepin County
Hennepin County board authorizes $10M toward eliminating digital divide

Kandiyohi County
Kandiyohi County to focus federal funding (ARP) on broadband

Le Sueur County
Asset mapping in Le Sueur County includes broadband plans

Mankato Free Press on rural wins in Legislature

Mankato getting more fiber with Consolidated and faster downloads with Spectrum

Northern MN
How can broadband help with these wild fires?

Internet Speeds up to 10 Gigabits Coming to Northern Minnesota

Mayo’s video visits up 5000 percent but how does that impact Rochester’s local economy?

Southeast MN
Sen Klobuchar says infrastructure bill will help get broadband to Southeast Minnesota

Thief River Falls
AT&T deploying 5G in areas around Thief River Falls, Marshall and North Shore MN

Upcoming Events, Opportunities and Resources

Stirring the Pot –

Blandin Foundation offers a couple approaches for communities wanting to work on broadband access and use. The Foundation is recruiting communities right now for both approaches.

Blandin Broadband Communities (BBC) – The BBC program requires a community team – City, County, School District, Tribal Government, or multi-county region – to work on both broadband access and use over an 18-24 month period. Communities receive leadership education, facilitation and grant resources to plan and implement projects that improve broadband access and use. This might include anything from wi-fi hotspots to e-commerce assessments and training to tele-health to training elders. Each community receives up to $75,000 to implement projects. Projects must fall into one or more of the six Intelligent Community framework, including broadband, workforce, innovation, digital equity, sustainability and/or community engagement. Blandin has worked with more than 40 communities on this program and the results always surpass expectations, even in this virtual environment.

Community Broadband Resources: Accelerate! – This program is focused on equipping your community broadband team to successfully plan and implement broadband infrastructure projects. Over a 16-week timeframe, community teams watch online broadband webinars, then meet Friday mornings for two hours to learn more about that week’s topics and plan the upcoming broadband development efforts.  Through the program, community teams conduct surveys, interview incumbent and prospective providers, develop consensus around local broadband partnership and finance strategies, etc.  We have just completed our first cohort of four county/tribal communities and now these communities are off and running on prospective broadband public-private partnership projects, including the pursuit of federal grants.

If you are interested in either of these programs, please contact Bill Coleman at 651-491-2551 or bill@communitytechnologyadvisors.com. Application timelines on both programs are short, so do not delay.

OPPORTUNITY: Open positions in MN State Boards, Councils and Committees

There were a few positions that I thought might be of interest to readers

Launch Minnesota
Vacancies: 2 Seats — Higher Education or Government Representative (Greater Minnesota or Metro Area)
Vacancies: 8 Seats — Private Business Representative (Entrepreneurs, large businesses, industry organizations, investors, and private small business assistance providers, Greater Minnesota or Metro Area)

Minnesota E-health Advisory Committee
Vacancies: 2 Seats — Academics and Research
Vacancies: 2 Seats — Experts in Quality Improvement and Clinical Guideline Development

Internet Speeds up to 10 Gigabits Coming to Northern Minnesota

Good news from Paul Bunyan…

The region’s fastest all-fiber optic network, the GigaZone®, is being upgraded and will be able to deliver Internet speeds both upload and download up to 10 Gigabits per second beginning September 1, the cooperative announced today.  As a result, more higher speed service options have been added and the cooperative is also lowering the price of its current 1 Gigabit service.

“When we started installing our all-fiber optic network in 2004 the technology was in its infancy though we realized even then the network would be capable of much more as innovation continued.  We introduced the GigaZone and speeds up to 1 Gigabit per second in 2014 and the technology has progressed so that we can now provide ten times that speed, up to 10 Gigabits per second both downloads and uploads!” said Gary Johnson, Paul Bunyan Communications CEO & General Manager.

The cooperative has introduced new higher speed service options including speeds up to 2 Gbps, 6 Gbps, and 10 Gbps.  In addition, the cooperative has lowered the price of 1 Gbps service.  Specific service and pricing information can be found at https://paulbunyan.net/gigazone/

“To put it in perspective, according to the Fiber Broadband Association 7 out of every 10 homes in the United States still doesn’t have access to fiber optic gigabit speeds let alone upload and download speeds up to 10 gigabits per second that we’ll be offering starting September 1,” added Johnson

“The pandemic really highlighted the need for high quality internet access, particularly the need for equally fast upload speeds which only an all-fiber optic network can deliver.  Distance learning, telehealth, business videoconferencing through Zoom and other platforms all need quality upload speeds which the GigaZone delivers.  As you might imagine, there was a dramatic increase in Internet usage throughout the pandemic and our network was easily able to handle it all,” said Steve Howard, Paul Bunyan Communications Information Technology and Development Manager

OPPORTUNITY: RFQ Posting Fiber Optic Network – Cedar Nicols Trailhead

Dakota County has a broadband deployment opportunity for someone…

Fiber Optic Network – Cedar Nicols Trailhead

​Dakota County is seeking bids from qualified contractors to complete work on the fiber optic network near ​Cedar Nicols Trailhead.

Bids due: Aug. 30 at 2 p.m.

Mail bids to:
Dakota County Information Technology Department
Attention: Dan Ferber
1590 Highway 55
Hastings, MN 55033

Mandatory pre-bid meeting:
Aug. 19 at 10 a.m.
Please contact Roni Woods at 763-543-2673 or rwoods@logis.org.

RFB – Fiber Optic Network – Cedar Nicols Trailhead
Project Design
Letter to Union Pacific Railroad Com​pany

OPPORTUNITY: Statewide Telecommuting Survey from UMN Extension

University of Minnesota is working on research related to telecommuting. Their work is important in helping us understand what we need and want in Minnesota to make best use of broadband. Help them help all of us by taking their survey…

“Have you wondered about Minnesota employers’ and workers’ experience of telecommuting before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic? The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) is wondering the same, which is why MnDOT is partnering with the University of Minnesota Tourism Center on a research project to find out! And now, the project needs your help.

Make your and your organization’s experience count by completing the worker survey and the employer survey. Forward the survey links to your colleagues and friends, so their voices can be heard, too! All these contributions are vital to the project and much appreciated.

Aug 25 Lunch Bunch: Discussion on Basic Broadband

Each month the Blandin Foundation hosts two conversation or lunch bunch sessions; on the second Wednesday of the month the focus is Infrastructure and on the fourth the focus is Digital Inclusion and Use.

There will only be one lunch bunch in August on August 25. We are inviting in an academic who is looking into the idea of the basic broadband. I think it will be a lively conversation.

Register here.

Sen Klobuchar says infrastructure bill will help get broadband to Southeast Minnesota

KTTC reports

United States senators have reached bi-partisan agreement on a $1 trillion infrastructure package.

Minnesota Senator Amy Klobuchar said this deal can specifically improve areas in southeast Minnesota.

Klobuchar has taken the lead in pushing the broadband improvement aspect of the deal.

“It’s going to be $60 billion. We are still working out some details. Which will really help in southern Minnesota where there is still areas of our state that have really, they might have broadband, but it’s not really high speed enough,” she said.

Klobuchar said broadband improvement helps for a variety of situations.

“I can’t tell you how many people I’ve talked to in southern Minnesota, who’s school districts where they’ll have a lot of kids maybe can do work remotely and then other kids can’t. Small businesses can’t get on remotely. Or a farmer isn’t able to contact or even use his high-precision agriculture equipment,” she said.

It helps with health care needs as well.

Interactive map of RDOF winners and bids in default

Last week, the FCC announced some of the winners and losers of RDOF awards. CNS has created an interactive map that include that info. Specifically, as they reports. The maps include

  • Initially won RDOF block groups
  • LTD and AB Indiana bidders’ declined waivers
  • Bids ready to be authorized
  • Bids in default
  • Potentially previously served blocks within winning areas

Mayo’s video visits up 5000 percent but how does that impact Rochester’s local economy?

The Post Bulletin reports

“We’re currently touching, caring for more patients on a given day now than they were pre-pandemic when you add in telemedicine activities, plus the patients coming on site for care here,” said Dr. Steve Ommen, a cardiologist and the medical director for experience products for Mayo Clinic’s Center for Digital Health.

Video visits skyrocketed more than 5,000% from 278 visits in February 2020 to 16,532 in December at Mayo Clinic-Rochester. Phone telemedicine visits also soared from 169 to 7,590 in the same timeframe, peaking at 24,670 visits in April 2020.

A looming question remains: How will this affect Rochester’s economy when much of the downtown and the largest private-public economic partnership in state history has been built with the presumption that many of Mayo’s patients will be visiting the city in person?

Sounds like the local economic developers aren’t too worried…

Holly Masek, executive director of the Rochester Downtown Alliance, said her team hasn’t specifically studied how telehealth use could affect the downtown. The general consensus is that there are enough patients traveling to Rochester for extended stays and more specialized care that businesses will not see a significant decrease in income because of telemedicine use.

There are pluses and minuses with remote working too…

Fewer Mayo Clinic employees are working downtown than before the pandemic, though telemedicine certainly can’t be pinpointed as the sole cause of this shift.

“Approximately 2,900 staff who were previously based in downtown Rochester will now work off campus a majority of the time,” Mayo Clinic spokeswoman Ginger Plumbo said to the Post Bulletin’s Jeff Kiger in early July. “This number evolved as Mayo Clinic continued to assess the workforce beyond the initial group of non-clinical administrative staff.”

The number went up from the 1,500 figure Mayo Clinic reported in October 2020.

It looks like the Mayo, more than the city, will need to look at the impact…

Preliminary studies from other healthcare institutions across the country provide a picture into how telemedicine use affects revenue. An April 2021 study by the Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Pennsylvania found that the adoption of telemedicine services resulted in just a -.8% hit to the department’s revenue.

“Given that the nation’s health systems are operating on thin margins amid rising payment and cost pressures, the findings of our study underscore the need for thoughtful examination to ensure telemedicine is used and supported effectively and sustainably,” read the study.

Legislative changes makes it easier to offer and afford telehealth…

Legislation passed in June 2021 as part of the Health and Human Services bill made these changes part of law, not just part of the emergency powers declaration.

For Mayo Clinic campuses in Arizona and Florida, the number of patients receiving care via telemedicine may differ. Arizona recently passed similar protections to Minnesota, while Florida rolled back telehealth regulations passed during the pandemic.

Even if Mayo Clinic’s bottom line isn’t greatly affected by telemedicine use, the patient’s pocketbook may be.

A 2014 study found that the average estimated cost of a telehealth visit is $40 to $50 compared to average cost of $136 to $175 for in-person acute care.

Minnesota legislation regulates the cost of telemedicine services to not surpass what the in-person cost would be.

Event notes: Lunch Bunch on Fall broadband conference, FCC RDOF announcements and more

This month’s Digital Use and Equity Lunch Bunch was a little scattered because we intersected with the MM Broadband Task Force monthly meeting. I’m sharing the video because a lot of good conversation happened. At the highest levels we talked about what people would like to see happen at the Fall Broadband conference. We’re looking for folks to propose topics on which to present or a topic you’d like us to tackle. How to use federal funding for broadband was a hot topic.

We also touched upon the latest announcement from FCC on RODF funding. We learned that Consolidated and Farmer’s got funding, that Aspire stepped back from funding and that LTD is on notice in some states but not word in Minnesota.

Can broadband help with these wild fires? Turns out yes!

I am in St Paul and I can tell you the air is thick and air quality seems poor. My colleagues up North say it’s worse there (between storms!). So this story from Urgent Communications seems particularly apt today…

Members of the Verizon Response Team (VRT) are using a variety of solutions to deliver broadband communications to public-safety agencies battling wildfires throughout the U.S.—at no additional cost—as part of the carrier’s Verizon Frontline offering, according to a Verizon official.

Cory Davis, director of Verizon Response and public-safety operations, said the VRT has been “super busy,” responding to a total of 74 named wildfires already in what is proving to be a very active wildfire season.

“We’ve had 88 deployments across the United States, from California, Oregon, Arizona, Montana, all the way to Minnesota,” Davis said during an interview with IWCE’s Urgent Communications. “There’s a huge fire—the Delta Lake fire—that’s burning right now along the Canadian border. We sent a team up there to help support the operations center, working really closely with the COMLs up there.”

Apparently some states are used to this, Minnesota is listed as a newer or less frequent fire place…

“This is the first time my East team went to a large forest fire in that part of the country,” Davis said. “Places like Canada and Minnesota just generally don’t have large forest fires that often like the West does. But as things are getting warmer and the climate is changing, we’re seeing that fires are popping up everywhere—I had my team out in North Carolina at a fire about a month ago.

The goal is bringing the network closer to the emergency workers…

Firefighters often work to control and extinguish wildfires in locations where terrestrial wireless coverage is not available, so many of the VRT solutions utilize geosynchronous (GEO) satellite communications with “public-safety-grade priority” to provide backhaul, according to Davis.

“We can get an average of 30 mbps downlink and 10 mbps uplink,” he said. “Obviously, there will be bursts with more [data throughput] being available.

“The biggest thing is dealing with latency when you use satellite backhaul—anywhere between 600 and 800 milliseconds—but first responders can do a lot with 30 mbps.”

Davis said that Verizon is closely monitoring developments in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite arena and will consider leveraging that technology in the future. This assessment process include testing of LEO-based offerings from companies like Lynk and AST SpaceMobile, which have announced satellite LTE services that will connect directly to a smartphone, as opposed to requiring the user to deploy a satellite dish or a specialized device, he said.

In addition to traditional deployable communications solutions—from those on vehicles to offerings housed in Pelican cases that can be carried by hand to a location—VRTs are using satellite pico cells on trailers (SPOTs) to deliver broadband in a focused area to help support first-responder communications.

“Essentially, we can provide not only a 4G LTE bubble but also a Wi-Fi bubble for—and it depends on the environment—about 6,000 to 7,000 square feet. So, it’s really good for base camps,” Davis said.

“Since it is enclosed, we also have the capability to have it be like a mini operational command-center—you can fit two or three good-sized adults in there. So, you can turn it into not only an asset that deploys coverage and capacity, but it can also work as kind of a makeshift operations center for a very, very small group.”

Verizon cannot use the high-power user equipment (HPUE) that is only permitted on the 700 MHz Band 14 spectrum licensed for FirstNet, but VRTs do have some solutions that can be deployed when extra range is needed, Davis said.

AT&T deploying 5G in areas around Thief River Falls, Marshall and North Shore MN

AT&T has been busy! They have announced 5G deployment in three areas in Minnesota. I’m going to merge that announcement into one:

  1. What’s the news in Thief River Falls? AT&T’s* 5G network – the most reliable 5G network – is now live for consumers and businesses in the Thief River Falls area.
    With this deployment, consumers and businesses in Thief River Falls, Newfolden, Hallock and Roseau with a 5G-capable device and qualifying plan will now have access to AT&T’s 5G service delivered using low-band spectrum.
  2. What’s the news in North Shore and North Country areas? AT&T’s* 5G network – the most reliable 5G network – is now live for consumers and businesses in the North Shore and North Country areas.
    With this deployment, consumers and businesses in Two Harbors, Silver Creek, Silver Bay, Hovland and Ely with a 5G-capable device and qualifying plan will now have access to AT&T’s 5G service delivered using low-band spectrum.
  3. What’s the news in Marshall and Madison? AT&T’s* 5G network – the most reliable 5G network – is now live for consumers and businesses in the Marshall and Madison areas.
    With this deployment, consumers and businesses in Marshall, Madison and Tracy with a 5G-capable device and qualifying plan will now have access to AT&T’s 5G service delivered using low-band spectrum.

Why is this important? We know how important it is for our customers to stay connected. AT&T 5G offers nationwide connectivity on its low-band sub-6 spectrum, which provides broadband coverage that will ultimately offer a better wireless experience with greater capacity and faster response times for businesses and consumers. 2Committed to our Networks: From 2018-2020, AT&T invested more than $300 million in our wireless network in Minnesota. In 2020, we made nearly 2,000 network enhancements across the state, including more than 25 new cell sites, additional network capacity, network upgrades and small cells.

These investments boost reliability, coverage, speed and overall performance for residents and their businesses.

What people are saying:

“At a time when technology is proving to be even more essential for communications, AT&T customers can rest assured that our company is continuing to invest in our network and new technologies to make connection easier. We consistently work to provide better coverage for Minnesota’s communities. And we’re investing in our wireless network in Thief River Falls, northwestern Minnesota and across the state to accomplish that,” said Paul Weirtz, state president, AT&T Minnesota.

Where can I find more information?

Go here to learn more about how AT&T is supporting Minnesota. Learn more about AT&T’s 5G network at att.com/5gforyou.

Kandiyohi County to focus federal funding (ARP) on broadband

West Central Tribune reports

he main focus of the EDC committee is the Federated Telephone fiber broadband project for Dovre, Mamre, St. Johns and Arctander townships. So far, about 681 properties could receive high-speed broadband through fiber if the project is completed.

“This is good news for the people in this area,” Schmoll said.

The project is estimated to cost around $9.7 million and funding is coming from a variety of sources. Federated is funding 25% of the project, and each individual property being hooked up to the new service will have to pay around $1,246, based on current cost projections.

The county has already approved two different funding requests for the project. The first was a $25,000 grant, available to any township in the county expanding broadband access. The second pot of money was $1.3 million from the county’s American Rescue Plan allocation.

More details…

The Kandiyohi County Board of Commissioners has already decided to focus most of the county’s share of the federal funding to broadband, bringing a big lift to the work being done by the Kandiyohi County and City of Willmar Economic Development Commission broadband committee.

“They are giving us the opportunities to get the funds we need to make these projects possible,” said Connie Schmoll, broadband planner, at Thursday’s meeting of the EDC Joint Powers Board.

Large swaths of Kandiyohi County, and the state as a whole, are considered underserved or unserved, meaning properties don’t have access to 100 megabits per second download and 20 mbps upload internet speeds. During the pandemic, it became obvious for many that working and learning from home just wasn’t possible without high-speed, reliable internet.

Schmoll said she heard stories of parents going into the office, when they should not have done so, because they needed to save whatever internet speed they had at home for the children’s distance learning.

Here’s info on their main focus…

The main focus of the EDC committee is the Federated Telephone fiber broadband project for Dovre, Mamre, St. Johns and Arctander townships. So far, about 681 properties could receive high-speed broadband through fiber if the project is completed.

“This is good news for the people in this area,” Schmoll said.

The project is estimated to cost around $9.7 million and funding is coming from a variety of sources. Federated is funding 25% of the project, and each individual property being hooked up to the new service will have to pay around $1,246, based on current cost projections.

The county has already approved two different funding requests for the project. The first was a $25,000 grant, available to any township in the county expanding broadband access. The second pot of money was $1.3 million from the county’s American Rescue Plan allocation.

And a few smaller projects…

In addition to the Federated projects, the committee is looking at other projects across the county. At the July 20 meeting of the Kandiyohi County Board, the commissioners approved sending $35,000 in American Rescue Plan funds to a Charter project in the 141st Avenue Northeast area in New London Township. A small project, it would bring services to 37 unserved homes in the area.

A $1 million project, developed by Arvig, could hook up 510 premises in Prinsburg to high-speed internet. Potential funding sources for that project include American Rescue Plan money from both the county and city of Prinsburg, along with $450,000 from Arvig and another $175,000 from a mix of the school, city and residents.